Java Notes

JVM MEMORY MODEL

javax.net.ssl.SSLException: Received fatal alert: protocol_version

On Java 1.8 default TLS protocol is v1.2. On Java 1.6 and 1.7 default is obsoleted TLS1.0. I get this error on Java 1.8, because url use old TLS1.0

echo 'export JAVA_TOOL_OPTIONS="-Dhttps.protocols=TLSv1.2"' >> ~/.bashrc
source ~/.bashrc

访问可见性

修饰符 子类 所有人
public
protected
没有修饰符
private

方法签名

方法签名包括

  • 方法名
  • 参数类型
  • 参数顺序

不包括

  • 返回类型
  • 可见性
  • 抛出例外

过载和覆盖

  • 过载: 方法名称相同但签名不同
  • 覆盖:
    • 签名相同,而且返回类型也必须相同
    • 可见性不能减少,可以增加可见性
    • 例外必须相同或者是父类例外的子类

visibility and Atomicity

in the absence of synchronization, there are a number of reasons a thread might not immediately ‐ or ever ‐ see the results of an operation in another thread. Compilers may generate instructions in a different order than the “obvious” one suggested by the source code, or store variables in registers instead of in memory; processors may execute instructions in parallel or out of order; caches may vary the order in which writes to variables are committed to main memory; and values stored in processor‐local caches may not be visible to other processors. These factors can prevent a thread from seeing the most up‐to‐date value for a variable and can cause memory actions in other threads to appear to happen out of order ‐ if you don’t use adequate synchronization.

Lock and ReentrantLock

Before Java 5.0, the only mechanisms for coordinating access to shared data were synchronized and volatile. Java 5.0 adds another option: ReentrantLock. Contrary to what some have written, ReentrantLock is not a replacement for intrinsic locking, but rather an alternative with advanced features for when intrinsic locking proves too limited

Intrinsic locking works fine in most situations but has some functional limitations ‐ it is not possible to interrupt a thread waiting to acquire a lock, or to attempt to acquire a lock without being willing to wait for it forever. Intrinsic locks also must be released in the same block of code in which they are acquired; this simplifies coding and interacts nicely with exception handling, but makes non‐blockstructured locking disciplines impossible

ReadWriteLock

The  locking  strategy  implemented  by  read‐write  locks  allows  multiple  simultaneous  readers  but  only  a  single  writer. In  practice, read‐write  locks  can  improve  performance  for  frequently  accessed  read‐mostly  data  structures  on  multiprocessor systems;  under  other  conditions  they  perform  slightly  worse  than  exclusive  locks  due  to  their  greater  complexity. Whether  they  are  an  improvement  in  any  given  situation  is  best  determined  via  profiling;  because  ReadWriteLock  uses Lock  for  the  read  and  write  portions  of  the  lock,  it  is  relatively  easy  to  swap  out  a  read‐write  lock  for  an  exclusive  one  if profiling  determines  that  a  read‐write  lock  is  not  a  win. 

hashtable

  • Hashtable is synchronized, whereas HashMap is not. This makes HashMap better for non-threaded applications, as unsynchronized Objects typically perform better than synchronized ones.
  • Hashtable does not allow null keys or values. HashMap allows one null key and any number of null values.
  • One of HashMap’s subclasses is LinkedHashMap, so in the event that you’d want predictable iteration order (which is insertion order by default), you could easily swap out the HashMap for a LinkedHashMap. This wouldn’t be as easy if you were using Hashtable.

HashTable is obsolete in Java 1.7 and it is recommended to use ConcurrentMap implementation

Java  Memory Model

The  Java  Memory  Model  is  specified  in  terms  of  actions,  which  include  reads  and  writes  to  variables,  locks  and  unlocks of  monitors,  and  starting  and  joining  with  threads.  The  JMM  defines  a  partial  ordering  [2]  called  happens‐before  on  all actions  within  the  program

soft reference

four different degrees of reference strength: strong, soft, weak, and phantom, in order from strongest to weakest

SoftReferences aren’t required to behave any differently than WeakReferences, but in practice softly reachable objects are generally retained as long as memory is in plentiful supply. This makes them an excellent foundation for a cache, such as the image cache described above

checked exception

The cardinal rule in deciding whether to use a checked or an unchecked exception is this: use checked exceptions for conditions from which the caller can reasonably be expected to recover. By throwing a checked exception, you force the caller to handle the exception in a catch clause or to propagate it outward. Each checked exception that a method is declared to throw is therefore a potent indication to the API user that the associated condition is a possible outcome of invoking the method.